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Parashat Shoftim




Yossi Lhungdim


Le'ilui Nishmat Avner Ben Avraham, Khana Lhanghal Bat Sarah, Ngahlhing Bat Sarah ve'Shifra Bat Zimra. Tihyeh Nishmatam Tzrorah Bitzror Hakhayim

וְאָמַר אֲלֵהֶם שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל Ve'amar alehem Shema Israel (Ajah uva asei ding "Shema Israel"…) ~ Devarim 20:3

Torah a kuon thupeh, Mitzvah 613 holah'a loupi tah le poimo tah mai'a chu Mitzvat Kiryat Shema hi ahiye. Rambam in aseina a (hakdamah leperush lemishnayot ve'n) Torah sung'a kisun thupeh holah'a Juda khat in nitin'a taanglou hiel'a nivei jen asuhbulhit jing ding'a kipe thupeh umsun chu Mitzvat Kiryat Shema hi ahi ti'n asei e. Chukit leh Torah She'be-alpe ahilouleh Mishna jieng jong adag hilou in Hilkhot Kiryat Shema a akipan in ahi.

Ahileh ipi ding'a Rabbeinu Hakadosh (Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi kiseina) in Torah she'be-alpe ahin guoltoh ding'a chu Kiryat Shema toh kisai daan-le-moul hohi amasapen a ahin pansah a hintem? Hiche thudoh hi Mefarshei Shas jouse'n adoh'u tithei phiel ahi'n; ahilchetna jong tamtah apeuve. Chuche holah'a khat veleuhen. Petakh Einayim in aseina a "ajehchu Juda pasal khat in Bar Mitzvah ahung hi jou'a Mitzvah asuhbulhit masat pen chu KIryat Shema hi ahi". Tidan chu kum 13 ahung lhin-lhin a ama ding'a Mitzvah masapen chu chuche jaan a Kiryat Shema asei pachu ahiye . Chuche toh kilhon a Rabbeinu Hakadosh in jong Mishna chu HIlkhot KIryat Shema a ahin pat a ahi.

Ahileh tu'n kidong leu hen. Ipi atileh Juda pasal khat chu Mitzvot ho subulhit thei ding'a khiyuv ahung hitieng Mitzvot 613 holah'a Kiryat Shema khel-khel hi amasapen a pang a hintem?

Masechet Berachot Perek 2, Mishna 2 mun a Rabbi Yehoshua Ben Korkha in hitin asei e: Mikhat chun Mitzvot ho suhbulhitna ding'a namkol – Ol Mitzvah akisaan ma'a P-thien leng hina namkol – Ol Malkhut Shamayim akisaan masat ngai a ahi; Chuti ahitoh kilhon a Kiryat Shema a hi Parshat Shema kisei masa'a aban le Parashat Vehaya im shamoa kisei'a ahiye.

Mefarshim ho'n Rabbi Yehoshua Ben Korkha thusei ahilchetna uva hitin asei uve: P-thien in isuhbulhit ding uvin thupeh – Mitzvot ho einapeh tahih jong leu mihem ho'n eima hetna le chihna a kuon ijui diu tamtah um e. Tekahna a tuoltha lou ding; guhchat lou ding; nu-le-pa jabol ding le adang dang hohi Gentile ho jieng in jong Torah aneilou vang uva, daan-le-moul akisem uva ajui uva ahiye. Chuti ahileh hitobang daan-le-moul hohi Torah a kisun hih jong leh mihem ho'n ijui diu tina ahi. Hijieng jong leh hitobang daan-le-moul, mihem chihna le thepna a hetthiem thei ho jieng jong eiho, Juda teho'n P-thien thupeh ahi jaal bou'a a ijui uva ahi. CHubep hilou'a daan-le-moul tamtah, mihem chihna in amatphahlou um kit'a (khok ti'a kiminvo ho; vetsahna a Para Aduma) ,chuche ho jieng jong chu tamkhuol lou hi'a "P-thien thupeh ahi'n, suhbulhit chu ikin u ahi" ti'a kijui kit a ahiye.

Ahileh hiche daan-le-moul hohi eiho chihna-thepna hilou'a P-thien thupeh ahi jaal bou'a ijui u ahi dan iti kihet thei em? Adang hilou'a P-thien leng hina namkol "Ol malkhut shamayim" ihin kisaan tieng uleh hung kilangdoh dehset ji a ahi. Gamsung khat a Leng kiti chun daan-le-moul ahin sem leh mipi hochun athu tamkhuol lou hiel'a ajui jieng bang uva P-thien chu "kalengpa ahe" ti'a ihin kisaan tieng Torah a kisun thupeh ho jong eima chihna-le-thepna hilou'a Lengpa thupeh – gezirat melekh ahijeh bou'a kijui ahidan kicheh tah'a mudoh thei'a um ji'a ahi.

Kiryat Shema chungchang'a Halakha hetding poimo tah chu "Shema Israel, H' Elokeinu, H' Ekhad" ti'a pasuk rishon isei tieng adang hilou'a hiche "P-thien leng hina namkol – Ol Malkhut Shamayim hi kakisaan e" ti'a kavannah peh tei-tei ding ti ahi. Hetding chu iham ti'a mikhat in Shema Israel asei'a hiche Kaballat Ol Malkhut Shamayim hi kavannah apehlou'a ahileh Mitzvat Kiryat Shema asuhbulhit lou a, chutobang dimun a chu avel'a KIryat Shema asei kit ngai nalai ding'a ahiye.

Chuta Mitzvat Kiryat Shema a kuon P-thien leng hina kikisaan a Mitzvot hochu "Leng thupeh ahijeh bou'a kasuhbulhit ahi" ti phonjalna kinei ahitoh kilhon a, Bar Mitzvah khat chun mipilhing ahung hi'a kipat Mitzvot ho ahin suhbulhit pan ding ahitoh kitoh a, adang-dang hilou'a P-thien kin abolna ding'a poimo pen tithei Kaballat Ol Malkhut Shamayim - Mitzvat Kiryat Shema a hi kal ahinson masatpen ji'a ahiye.

Tuchan a isei hou bep hilou'a, Mitzvat kiryat shema loupi dan tuchung Parasha a kuon mudoh thei ahiye. Parasha ivet leh Torah in aseina a Am Israel techu gaal akuon tieng uleh thao-nusa Kohen pa'n (gaal a kuon sepai ho kilhonpi ding Kohen khat atumbeleh a thao anakinu ji a ahiye) gaal kisat masang'a hitahi asei ding ahiye,"Shema Israel! Tuni nikho'a hi nangho nagaal mitehou chung'a gaal bol ding nahiuve; Lhadai hih uvin; Kicha hih uvin; Amasang uva tija hih uvin. Ajehchu Pakai Na'P-thien uvin nakilhon pi uvin, ama'n nagaal mitehou chunga gaal nasat peh diu, huhhingna le goljona namu diuva ahi "(Devarim 20:4-5 ve'n).

Rashi Hakadosh in Gemara Masechet Sotah 42a mun'a Khazal ho thusei pansan a aseina a hilai a "Shema Israel" kiti hi Kohen pa'n gaal'a kuon ding sepoy ho heng'a thu ahin sei kigot toh kitoh'a "Ngai in Israel" ti'a athusei angailhahna ding uva asei ahipoi; hinlah hiche hi Mitzvat Kiryat Shema kiseina ahi ati'e. Chuleh Khazal ho'n aseinauva gaal kisat ma'a Kohen pa'n Kiryat Shema asei hi'n ipi avetsah em itileh Am Israel techun zkhut dang ima nei tahih jong leu phatecha Mitzvat Kiryat Shema hi niseh a – Shakharit le Arvith a Kiryat Shema, asuhbulhit jing nah uva ahileh hiche Mizvat Kiryat Shema zkhut pa jaal bouseh'a jong P-thien in agaalmite hou chung'a goljona apeh ding'a ahinalaiye.

Khazal ho thusei ivet'a ahileh Mitzvat Kiryat Shema hin chuchan gei'a chu tha anei a, loupi a ahiye. Langkhat a hilai'a hin kushiya dohthei ijat ham aum in ahi. Ipi atileh Khazal ho'n "Shema Israel" ti'a tuchung Parasha a kisun hi Mitzvat Kiryat Shema kiseina ahe atiuva ham? Koi in ijat ahet am, ijou'a isei bang uva, Kohen pachun gaal'a kuon ding sepoy ho jaal'a chu kathusei phaten anangai uvo ti'a aseina jong himo di? (A Parasha isim leh Kohen pa'n sepoy ho atielkhou a, chuleh Gaal'a kuon ding ho chu thudoh anei a, kilhenchilna ananei jiuva ahi. Tuchung Parasha a kisun ma bang'a koi hileh inn thah nei aum leh kinungle hen; ji thah nei aumleh kinungle hen; theilei nei aum leh…)

Chukit leh akoi jouse'n hilai mun'a kushiya adoh uchu – Ipi atileh Mitzvat Kiryat Shema bouseh jieng jong Am Israel te'n phatecha asuhbulhit uva ahileh P-thien agaalmitehou chu akhut uva apehdoh ding a hintem? Zkhut dang ima nei hih jong leu hiche Kiryat Shema zkhut pa bouseh jaal'a P-thien in ahin kithopi uva, agaal tehou ajou ding uchu iti dan hintem?

Kushiya masapa chu Maharal Mi'Prague ahi'n chujong leh Shiftei KHakhamin in hitin hilchetna ape lhon e: "Shema Israel" hi Mitzvat Kiryat shema kiseina ahilou'a ahileh Torah in "ve'amar alehem, attem karevim hayom lamilkhamah" ti'a asut ding'a ahi. (Tidan chu "Ve'amar alehem, Shema Israel, attem karevim hayom lamilkhamah" ti khel'a "ve'amar alehem attem karevim hayom lamilkhamah" ti'a asut a kichai a ahijieng e.)

Maharal Mi'Prague le Shiftei Khakhamim teni hilchetna hi kicheh jeplou maithei ahi'n, Harif (Aiyn Yaakov hilchetna pe lah'a Mefarshim khat; Poskim Rishonim holah'a Rif kiseina hilou) hilchetna vetbe leuhen. Harif in aseina a hilai'a "Shema Israel" hi Mitzvat Kiryat Shema kiseina ahi. Ajehchu pasuk chedan ivet a ahileh abul in "vea'amar alehem" ti'n Plural a akisun in (Kohen pachun amaho heng'a asei e ti'n plural a akisun e) ; chujou chun "Shema Israel" ti'n "Ngai in Israel" ti'n Singular a akisun in; Chujou chun "attem karevim hayom lamilkhamah" – "tuni nikho'n nangho gaal bol ding in nahung uve" ti'n Plural a akisun kit in ahi. Ahileh tu'n veleuhen ipi ding'a Plural a kipan a, aban a singular a kisun a, aban a Plural a kisun kit a ham? Chuti ahileh adang hilou'a hilai'a Singular a kisun "Shema Israel" hi Mitzvat Kiryat Shema (Shema Israel H' Elokeinu H' Ekhad) kiseina ahi kicheh tah'a kimu'a ahiye. CHutilou hileh Torah in "tishmeu Israel/Shemeu Israel – Ngai uvin Israel" ti'a asei ding a ahi.

Tu'n Kushiya nina pa hilchet ding go leuhen. Hiche kushiya toh kisai hi Mefarshim ho'n hilchetna tamtah apeuvin. Abon'a seina ding phat aumlou toh kilhon in alah'a khat, Rabbi Yaakov Reisher in alekhabusut Iyun Yaakov a hilchetna apeh veuhite.

Ihetsa ma bang uva Khazal ho'n hitin eihil uve: Talmud Torah kenegged kulam – Mitzvot tamah inei lah uva aloupi pen chu Talmud Torah "Torah sim/Torah a kisuhboi" ahiye.

Masechet Makot Daf 10a mun ivet leh Khazal ho'n hitin asei uve: Omdot hayu ragleinu bisha'arayik Yerushalayim (Jerusalem khopi kelkot-phung a kakeng uvin kading uve – Tehillim 122:2 ve'n) hi ipi kiseina ham? Jerusalem khopi kelkot itileh Torah simho kiseina ahi'n; Kakeng uvin kading uve itileh Gaaljona kiseina ahi. Hichun avetsah chu Torah simho jaal'a Am Israel te'n gaaljona amu uva ahibou e.

Masechet Sanhedrin Daf 49 mun a Khazal ho'n aseinauva David Lengpa Torah'a akidii jing jaal'a Yoav chun galmun'a goljona akimu ji a ahibou e. David Lengpa Torah sim zkhut chu umlou hileh Yoav in gaaljona akimulou ding ti ahi.

Tuchan'a isei hou jouse chu ivet'a ahileh Talmud Torah chu ichan'a loupi ham ti kicheh tah'a mudoh thei a ahi. Yehoshua lekhabu ivet a ahileh Talmud Torah chungchang'a hitin akisun e: Lo yamush sefer hatorah haje mipikha, vehagita bo yomam valailah (Hiche Torah hi nakam a kuon kicholsah hih in lang, sun le jaan in sim jing in – Yehoshua 1:8). Ahileh sun le jaan a, taanglou hiel'a Torah sim jing ding, ikam a kuon kicholsah lou ding tichu mikhat in iti asuhbulhit ding hitan tem? Asuhbulhit ding dan lampi khat Masechet Menakhot 99b mun'a Ha'Tanna Hakadosh, Rabbi Shimon Bar Yokhai in hitin eihil uve: Mikhat chun Kiryat Shema hi ahiding bang tah'a nikhat a nivei – Shakharit le Arvith teni'a asim jing'a ahileh "lo yamush sefer hatorah haje mipikha" chu asuhbulhit a ahi.

Iyun Yaakov in aseina a Mitzvat Kiryat Shema ahiding bang tah'a Yehudi khat in asuhbulhit a kuon Mitzvat Talmud Torah jieng jong asuhbulhit thei ahitoh kilhon a Zkhut Mitzvat Kiryat Shema bouseh jaal jieng'a jong Am Israel te'n agaalmite hou chu ajothei uva ahiye. Gemara Masechet Shabbat Daf 119b ivet a ahileh Khazal ho'n aseinauva Jerusalem khopi suhset'a aumchu adang ahipo'n Kiryat Shema Shakharit le Kiryat Shema Arvith ahiding bang'a asuhbulhit tahlou jeh u ahiye. Chuta Mitzvat Kiryat Shema not-thap'a anakoi phat uva gaalmite chu anajolel uva, achaina a Jerusalem khopi chu suhset a um a hi ti ahiye.

Langkhat a Masechet Menakhot mun'a Rabbi Shimon Bar Yokhai in Kiryat Shema chungchang'a asei chu ivet a ahileh hitin jong asei e: Kiryat Shema Shakharit ve'Arvit a kuon Mitzvat Talmud Torah suhbulhit thei hijieng jong leh hiche hi mipi hetding'a lhangphong tah'a sei ding phal ahipoi (ajehchu ijou khat leh Kiryat Shema jingkah-nilhah a isei a kuon Mitzvat Talmud Torah suhbulhit thei ahitah leh mi atamjo'n sun-le-jaan a Torah a kakidii angaipoi ti'a agel uva, ahilou lang tah'a mitamtah in akilah diu, chekhel thei uva ahi). \

Iyun Yaakov in hitin dohna asem e: Chuti ahileh itidan a gaal lai leh Kohen pachun Mitzvat Kiryat Shema bouseh'a kuon Mitzvat Talmud Torah suhbulhit'a umthei a, chu'a kuon a chu P-thien in Am Israel te khut'a agaalmite houchu ahin pehdoh ding ahi ti'a lhangphong tah'a sei hintem? Ravpa'n hiche a-kushiya doh hi hitin hilchetna ape e: Ajehchu gaal-lai tieng leh gaalmun a um sepoy hochun Talmud Torah chu adeidan bang uva asuhbulhit theilou uva ahitai. Chutobang dinmun a Mitzvat Talmud Torah suhbulhitna thei ding lampi umsun chu Mitzvat Kiryat Shema hi ahitoh kilhon a Kohen pachun lhangphong tah'a gaal'a kuon ho hetding'a asei a ahiye.

Langkhat a tuchung Parasha ivet a ahileh "koi hileh alungsung'a kichatna nei'a chu a-inn a kinungle hen" (Devarim 20:8 ve'n) ti'n akisun e. Khazal ho'n aseinauva hilai pasuk a kisei "alungsung'a kichatna nei" kiti hi chonsetna neiho kiseina ahiye ti'n asei uve. Gemara Masechet Sotah 44b mun a Khazal ho'n aseinauva Tefillin shel yad le Tefillin shel rosh kikah'a pao pa jieng jong chu chonsetna a kisim'a, hitobang michu gaal'a kuondoh thei talou ding, a-inn a kinungsol ji'a ahinalaiye.

Chuti ahileh gaal'a kuon ding chu Tzaddik Gamur ahingai tina ahi. Ahileh tu'n veleuhen chuta gaal'a chu chonsetna neocha nei khat jieng jong akuondoh a ahitah leh gollel thei ding ahitah leh iti dan a Khazal ho'n "Am Israel te'n zkhut dang ima neihih jong leu Mitzvat Kiryat Shema ahiding bang'a asuhbulhit uva ahileh hiche Zkhut pa jaal'a chu P-thien in agaalmite hou akhut uva apehdoh ding a ahi" ti'a asei uva hintem?

Rabbi Yaakov Yosef, Hamaggid Mivilna ti'a jong kihe in hiche kushiya ahilchetna a hitin asei e: Gaaljona kiti hi ni a khenthei a ahi: Mipi gaaljona le Chang'a gaaljona. Zkhut Mitzvat Kiryat Shema jaal bouseh'a jong Am Israel te'n agaal tehou ajo ding u kiti chu hiche Mipi gaaljona – Nitzakhon Haklal hi'a ahi. Hinlah hetding chu hiche mipi gaaljona pa hi P-thien in Mitzvat Kiryat Shema jaal in eipe tajong leu mikhat chu Tzaddik Gamur ahilou kalse gaalmun'a chun sohcha in tin, damsel in hung kinungle inte ti seithei ahipoi. Tidan chu Mitzvat Kiryat Shema chun gaaljona eipeh vang uva mikhat chun chonsetna neocha anei tah ahileh zkhut mitzvat kiryat shema chun aven jou dehlou'a, chuche jeh'a chu gaalmun'a vangsetna atuothei a ahiye. Tichu mipi gaaljona aum man'a chang'a gaaljona chu um mong-mong inte ti ima kiseitheilou a ahitai. Chuti ahitoh kihon a gaal'a kuon ding kiti chu chonsetna neocha nei ho jieng jong a-inn a anale sol jiuva ahi.

SHABBATH SHALOM LEKULAM







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